Showing posts tagged drugs

UNAIDS report criticises punitive drug policies

Today’s ‘2013 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic' from UNAIDS contains plenty of good news (see BBC: ‘Dramatic’ drop in global HIV infections).

But there is notable criticism on the progress and policies surrounding injecting drug users, which I’ll try to collect here:

From the foreword: 

Stigma and discrimination remain rife in many parts of the world, and punitive laws continue to deter those most at risk from seeking essential HIV services.

On the 2011 target to ‘Halve the transmission of HIV among people who inject drugs by 2015’ (from the Introduction):

The world is not on track to reduce HIV transmission among people who inject drugs by 50%, as recent evidence suggests little change in the HIV burden in this population. HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs remains high – up to 28% in Asia. HIV prevention coverage for people who inject drugs remains low, with only two of 32 reporting countries providing the recommended minimum of at least 200 sterile syringes per year for each person who injects drugs. Among 35 countries providing data in 2013, all but four reached less than 10% of opiate users with substitution therapy. In addition to exceptionally low coverage, an effective AIDS response among people who inject drugs is undermined by punitive policy frameworks and law enforcement practices, which discourage individuals from seeking the health and social services they need.

More on that in these snippets from Chapter 2:

Recent data suggest little change has occurred in the HIV burden among people who inject drugs. HIV incidence among this population remains high, with people who inject drugs accounting for more than 40% of new infections in some countries.

A package of HIV prevention, care and treatment services is recommended for the prevention of new HIV infections among people who inject drugs.

Recommended services include access to HIV testing and counselling, sterile injecting equipment (through needle and syringe programmes), opioid substitution therapy, antiretroviral therapy and other health and social services. People who inject drugs and their sexual partners also need counselling, education, behavioural interventions and access to condoms to prevent sexual transmission.

Uptake of voluntary HIV testing and counselling is extremely low among people who inject drugs, and criminalization, stigma and discrimination deter individuals from seeking services.

…draconian policy and legislative obstacles, and low service coverage, prevent meaningful HIV prevention for many people who inject drugs in many countries in [Central Asia].

Chapter 8, on eliminating HIV-related stigma, discrimination, punitive laws and practices, says:

Punitive policies pertaining to drug use – including harsh penalties for possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use, criminalization of drug dependence, compulsory drug detention and bans on drug substitution therapy or needle and syringe programmes – prevent or deter many people who inject drugs from receiving the services they urgently need. Compulsory drug detention regimes in some countries are so severe that a United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment singled them out for denunciation in 2013. In 2012, 12 UN system agencies jointly called for the closure of compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centres.

I wrote in 2010 on how “the UN says bad laws and discrimination, particularly in respect to drug users and homosexuals, continue to hamper the fight against Aids.” Russia is a particularly bad offender but seems to get away with it in this year’s UNAIDS report by having failed (along with the USA) to report statistics about HIV amongst injecting drug users.

PS It was this blog’s 3rd birthday yesterday! I’ve rarely posted recently due to work - and the option of other outlets for writing - but it’s still here and I’ll continue to post when it’s useful…


Posted at 2:07pm • Permalink  • Tags: hiv aids drugs drug policy prohibition


Posted at 1:13am • Permalink  • Tags: drugs drug policy drugs policy uk prohibition


What the Cabinet said about drugs policy (in 1970)

Over at The Poison Garden is a preliminary fisking of Peter Hitchens’s upcoming drugs policy book and its promotion. That led me to track down a fascinating document of Cabinet Conclusions. The date is 26th February 1970 and the topic is “the forthcoming Misuse of Drugs Bill”. The Home Secretary is James Callaghan, and this is a few months before Wilson loses the election to the Tories (who - very unusually - see that the previous government’s bill becomes law). In another document (the memorandum) Callaghan states that his own view is that the three-classifications idea should be ignored, and that possession of any controlled drug should have a maximum sentence of 7 years.

Here’s the drugs discussion in its entirety, with emphasis added by me (note how easily managing public opinion is put ahead of rationality and considered expert judgement):

"The Cabinet had before them a memorandum by the Home Secretary on the Misuse of Drugs Bill (C (70) 34).

The Home Secretary said that the Home Affairs Committee had recently considered the range of penalties to be provided in the forthcoming Misuse of Drugs Bill. Existing legislation on this subject distinguished in principle between the offences of simple possession of controlled drugs and trafficking in them. But, under the Dangerous Drugs Act, 1965, which dealt with heroin, cocaine, morphine and cannabis, the two offences had been treated on the same basis and the same penalty of ten years’ imprisonment applied to each. Under the Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1964, which dealt with amphetamines, LSD and other hallucinogens, possession was punishable by two years’ imprisonment; and there was no separate offence of trafficking. The Committee had agreed that the new Bill should continue to distinguish between the offences of possession and trafficking; but they had also approved a division of drugs into three categories, each of which would attract a separate and appropriate penalty. But if—as was clearly right—the penalties for trafficking should be increased (e.g. in the case of the most dangerous drugs, from the existing limit of ten years’ imprisonment to a new limit of 14 years), it followed that the penalties for simple possession of the less serious drugs should be reduced; and the Committee had recommended that on this basis the penalty for possession of cannabis might be curtailed from ten years to three years. Further reflection, however, had suggested that public opinion might well regard a change of this kind as indicating too lenient an attitude on the part of the Government towards the potentially dangerous practice of drug-taking; and the Cabinet would wish to consider whether the political damage which the Government might suffer if this impression gained ground was sufficiently serious to justify a modification of the terms of the Bill before it was introduced.

If so, one of two courses could be adopted. The first would preserve the three categories of controlled drugs but would increase the penalties for simple possession of drugs in the two most serious categories from three years’ imprisonment to five years in the case of cannabis and from five years to seven years in the case of heroin, cocaine, etc. The second approach, which on the whole he advised, would be to abandon the distinction between categories of drugs entirely and to provide single maximum penalties for possession and trafficking respectively. The former might be either ten years or seven years’ imprisonment; the latter would be 14 years in all cases.

In discussion, there was general agreement that it would be right to maintain the distinction between the offences of possession and trafficking and to establish a more flexible and discriminating classification of the various categories of drugs. But the proposed reduction of the penalty for simple possession of cannabis from ten years’ imprisonment to three years would be liable to be severely criticised by public opinion, especially by parents and teachers. The impact of this apparent concession to the permissive tendencies in society would not be offset by the increase in the penalty for possession in the case of other drugs (e.g. LSD); and the Government might be at considerable political risk as a result. It would be very unwise to underestimate the degree of public concern on this subject and the ease with which the Governments intentions might be misinterpreted.

On the other hand, the proposals as approved by the Home Affairs Committee were the result of very careful consideration and reflected the considered judgment of expert opinion. Of the two alternative courses which the Home Secretary had suggested the second would entail a maximum penalty of seven years’ imprisonment for simple possession of cannabis; and a sentence of such severity was wholly unrealistic in relation to the offence as committed by, for example, a schoolchild. Moreover, the penalty actually imposed would lie at the discretion of the court; and, since it was most unlikely that the court would in fact deal so harshly with an offence of this kind, the law itself would be liable to fall into disuse and disrepute. The political risks of proceeding with the proposals as approved by the Home Affairs Committee could be exaggerated; and in any event it would be wrong, in a matter of this kind, to subordinate the requirements of humanity and equity to political considerations.

The Prime Minister, summing up the discussion, said that it appeared that the Cabinet were in favour, by a small majority, of proceeding with the proposals recommended by the Home Affairs Committee. But it might help to allay public disquiet if the proposed penalties for possession of controlled drugs were increased to some extent—e.g. to seven years (instead of five years) for the most serious drugs and to five years (instead of three years) for drugs in the second category, including cannabis. The Cabinet agreed that the Bill should go forward on this basis.

The Cabinet—

Invited the Home Secretary to arrange for the early introduction of the Misuse of Drugs Bill on the basis indicated by the Prime Minister in his summing up of their discussion.”

PS If anyone has or can find any of the relevant Home Affairs Committee documents, please do let me know!


New paper shows drugs classifications are wrong

Following on from the work of David Nutt and others - originally for the government’s own advisory panel - is another paper trying to compare the harms of different drugs. As with previous papers, and available at the British Medical Journal, this one’s not good news for our current classification system or the distinction between legal and illegal drugs.

One of the strengths of this study is the large number of experts involved. Two hundred and ninety-two addiction multidisciplinary experts across Scotland were involved making it the largest national panel to be involved in this type of study.  [Addiction community psychiatric nurses were the largest group, making up 46% of the experts]


The main result is that heroin, crack cocaine, crystal meth, alcohol and cocaine were in the top five places for all [9] categories of harm, with LSD, ecstasy, methylphenidate, magic mushrooms and cannabis in the bottom five places for all categories of harm.  The hierarchy of harm when judged by the experts did not correlate with the hierarchy used currently by the Misuse of Drugs Act.


This study demonstrates, similar to both of Nutt’s studies, that the legality of a substance does not reflect its potential for harm.

The burgeoning evidence of the harm caused by tobacco and alcohol would also suggest that from a scientific perspective these drugs are currently misclassified and that a new method for ranking drug harm, which could guide policies and public health strategies, is required, with many in the scientific and medical community feeling that this should be separated from the criminal justice system and associated penalties.

Any new system would also have to address the issue of personal choice and responsibility in using substances and examine the context in which they are being used. Increasing public awareness of the potential for harm of all the drugs examined whether legal or illegal and finding ways of reducing the demand for psychoactive substances should be the focus rather than imposing harsh penalties for their use.

These methods of comparing harms aren’t perfect. One issue with this paper is that there’s no distinction between harms intrinsic to the drug and additional harm caused by prohibition. Whatever you think of legalisation, a regulated market certainly wouldn’t see heroin contaminated with anthrax, for example.

But these methods are certainly better than the politics and misinformed hysteria that have created the UK’s classification system.

Hopefully this and further improvements will help lead to a more sensible system, but it’s clear that there are also individual reclassifications that could help. The ACMD might next year recommend that Ketamine should be moved up to Class B. Based on this paper, that might be reasonable. But it may also be an opportunity to change - or at least discuss - other classifications, especially those of ecstasy and cannabis (in both cases Labour ignored ACMD advice), as well as LSD and magic mushrooms.

This is not entirely academic. Assuming some people listen to advice from the Home Office, information not based in fact promotes poor decisions and is a danger to people’s health. Think of the children…

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Posted at 5:14pm • Permalink  • Tags: drugs prohibition science


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Posted at 4:08pm • Permalink  • Tags: prohibition drug policy drugs policy drugs


Greece to decriminalise drug possession?

The reporting so far is a little confusing and sometimes contradictory, but it seems that:

Proposals have been made by the Greek Justice Minister Miltiadis Papaioannou to the Greek Committee on Social Affairs which notably include decriminalisation of personal drug use, as long as the drug use only impacts the behavior and condition of the individual drug user.

Under the reforms possession of drugs for personal consumption will be classed as only misconduct so long as it is used for only private use, and the cultivation of cannabis will be tolerated if only for personal use. The bill also proposes to guarantee the right for drugs treatment to all who request it, including drug users incarcerated. The reforms will not legalise the supply or trafficking of drugs, these actions will still be considered offences under Greek law.


The Minister explained that these actions would be now regarded as misdemeanors, as long as it effects only the user and no others. Minister Papaioannou noted that the law had to be changed because of the minor danger of specific actions. In this way, police will have the ability to deal more quickly and easily with more severe issues. The Minister stressed that the law has a therapeutic approach to the issue and every drug user will be treated as an addicted person who needs help rather than punishment.

Austerity does have its benefits! I suspect Portugal’s high-profile (and somewhat-different) decriminalisation, and the EU’s quietly favourable attitude will deserve some credit too if this comes to pass. Watch this space.


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Posted at 5:48pm • Permalink  • Tags: prohibition drugs bust
Reblogged (Link reblogged from fuckyeahdrugpolicy) - A really educational and fair survey on drugs policy. Spare some time to answer all four pages and it will let you know where you lie on the spectrum.

Lumping all drugs and all patterns of use together under terms like “drug use” isn’t ideal but it does make the debate more manageable. Nonetheless, give it a go!

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Posted at 6:10pm • Permalink  • Tags: prohibition drug policy global affairs drugs